Frequency is described in the Merriam-Webster dictionary as “the number of repetitions of a periodic process in a unit of time.” The word applies to alternating current or to oscillations. An oscillation commonly describes a wave of sound or electromagnetism, but this is also where watch frequency comes in.
A mechanical watch movement features a power source (the mainspring), transmission (the gear train), and regulation (the escapement, balance wheel, and hairspring). The power flows from the mainspring, via the transmission, to the escape wheel, and it is through the oscillations of the balance wheel that the power is ultimately and precisely expelled and the movement’s frequency is manifested.
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